The specific treatment for periodontal disease is always determined by the type and severity of the disease. Your dentist or dental hygienist will have to examine you before they suggest a specific treatment.
However, we can still categorize the treatments according to the stage of the disease:
The early stages of the disease – gingivitis
If you catch the disease early on, the treatment is relatively simple. At this stage, there is usually only plaque and calculus, which can be easily removed through scaling and cleaning. The healthcare professional will attempt to clean below the gum line using hand tools or an ultrasonic device which breaks up the plaque and calculus. The process can usually be finished successfully in only one or two visits.
After that, you will also have to follow proper dental hygiene (your dentist will suggest the exact techniques you should use) as periodontitis is a chronic disease and can thus reappear.
The advanced stages of the disease
The advanced stages are more complex, and several treatments might be suggested.
Flap surgery – involves lifting the gums back and then removing the bacteria. The gums are sutured back, and after time, they heal and fit closely around the tooth.
Bone and tissue grafts – Natural or synthetic bones are placed to promote bone growth if the disease has destroyed parts of the bone and gum tissue.
Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) – This surgical procedure uses mesh-like materials to create a barrier between the gum, tissue and bones, giving them a chance to regenerate.
In addition to all of this, medicine might be suggested as well - usually mouthwashes and antibiotics.